Combining temporal analysis with metrics such as energy and valence can help represent the path in a more modern way. We can filter through songs that gradually build in intensity, or find songs that are full of energy all the way through.


Spotify’s recommendation engine also extracts semantic information from text related to the track or artist through the use of natural language processing

Lyrics can help you understand the content oen creating new playlists or tracking radio stations.

 tool for understanding a track or artist. Spotify regularly conducts web crawls of online media and music publications to find out how real people describe each track or artist.

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Collaborative filtering refers to the technique where you can filter out things that a user would telephone number list prefer by looking at similar user habits.

For example, user A might like artists X and Y, and another Spotify user B also likes X and Y. If user B listens to a lot of songs from artist Z, it is possible that user A will also like them.

One issue with collaborative filtering using this method is that users generally have a more diverse taste in music. It is possible that artist Z is a completely different species from artists X and Y.

To combat this, Spotify uses a variation of collaborative filtering that looks into a playlist and a co-occurring listening session. In a simpler sense, tracks that tend to be in the same playlist or songs that people listen to in the same session are more likely to be similar.

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We now have a good representation that describes a track or an artist. How do we then find the right users to recommend the songs to?

Another challenging problem that Spotify should solve is understanding the music taste of its users.

When you first create a Spotify account, you may notice that Spotify asks you to select a few genres or artists that you want to follow. This is the first step in determining what kind of music the user wants to listen to.

After that, Spotify’s recomm Bulk Lead endation engine tracks all your listening activity. It makes sense that Spotify will give you more classical music recommendations if it’s classical music.